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Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild and Domestic Birds in Luxembourg from 2006 to 2008 /

by Chantal J. Snoeck; Claude P. Muller; Marianna Marinelli; Serge Losch; Aurélie Sausy; Tom Conzemius; Emilie Charpentier; cLaboratoire de Médecine Vétérinaire de l'Etat, Administration des Services Vétérinaires, Ministère de l'Agriculture, de la Viticulture et du Développement rural, Luxembourg, Luxembourg; bLëtzebuerger Natur-a Vulleschutzliga, Kockelscheuer, Luxembourg; aInstitute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public-Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
Material type: materialTypeLabelComputer fileSeries: Applied and Environmental Microbiology.Publisher: American Society for Microbiology, 2013Description: Journal article.ISSN: 1098-5336.Online resources: Link to original article. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Vol.) 79. (No.) 2. 2013. (Pages.) 639-645.Summary: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases of birds. Wild birds constitute a natural reservoir of low-virulence viruses, while poultry are the main reservoir of virulent strains. Exchange of virus between these reservoirs represents a risk for both bird populations. Samples from wild and domestic birds collected between 2006 and 2010 in Luxembourg were analyzed for NDV. Three similar avirulent genotype I strains were found in ducks during consecutive years, suggesting that the virus may have survived and spread locally. However, separate introductions cannot be excluded, because no recent complete F gene sequences of genotype I from other European countries are available. Detection of vaccine-like strains in wild waterbirds suggested the spread of vaccine strains, despite the nonvaccination policy in Luxembourg. Among domestic birds, only one chicken was positive for a genotype II strain differing from the LaSota vaccine and exhibiting a so-far-unrecognized fusion protein cleavage site of predicted low virulence. Three genotype VI strains from pigeons were the only virulent strains found. The circulation of NDV in wild and free-ranging domestic birds warrants continuous surveillance because of increased concern that low-virulence wild-bird viruses could become more virulent in domestic populations.
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases of birds. Wild birds constitute a natural reservoir of low-virulence viruses, while poultry are the main reservoir of virulent strains. Exchange of virus between these reservoirs represents a risk for both bird populations. Samples from wild and domestic birds collected between 2006 and 2010 in Luxembourg were analyzed for NDV. Three similar avirulent genotype I strains were found in ducks during consecutive years, suggesting that the virus may have survived and spread locally. However, separate introductions cannot be excluded, because no recent complete F gene sequences of genotype I from other European countries are available. Detection of vaccine-like strains in wild waterbirds suggested the spread of vaccine strains, despite the nonvaccination policy in Luxembourg. Among domestic birds, only one chicken was positive for a genotype II strain differing from the LaSota vaccine and exhibiting a so-far-unrecognized fusion protein cleavage site of predicted low virulence. Three genotype VI strains from pigeons were the only virulent strains found. The circulation of NDV in wild and free-ranging domestic birds warrants continuous surveillance because of increased concern that low-virulence wild-bird viruses could become more virulent in domestic populations.

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